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  • 铝合金焊接时需要注意哪些问题?
  • 本站编辑:杭州曼布斯建材有限公司发布日期:2018-05-30 16:07 浏览次数:

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铝及铝合金在现代工程技术所用的各种材料中占有举足轻重的地位,它在世界年产量仅次于钢铁而居第二位,在有色金属中则居第一位。如果说铝合金比较初是在航空工业中崭露头角的话,那么近几十年来,除航空工业外,在汽车、船舶、桥梁、机械制造、电工、化学工业、房屋装修中已大量应用铝及铝合金。在使用铝合金的过程中焊接是比不可少的一部分,那么在焊接的时候需要注意哪些基本的问题了?
Aluminum and aluminum alloys play an important role in various materials used in modern engineering technology. It ranks second in the world's annual output second only to iron and steel, and is the first in non-ferrous metals. In the last few decades, aluminum and aluminum alloys have been widely used in aerospace, autos, ships, bridges, machinery manufacturing, electricians, chemical industries, house decoration and cryogenic devices. In the process of using aluminum alloy, aluminum alloy welding is an indispensable part. What basic problems should be noticed when welding?
1、钨电极的选用
1, the selection of tungsten electrode
氩弧焊用的钨极材料有纯钨、钍钨、铈钨、锆钨四种。纯钨极的熔点和沸点高,不容易熔化挥发,但电子发射能力比钍钨、铈钨要差。在纯钨中加入质量分数为1.0%~2.0%的氧化钍(Tho)电极称为钍钨极。它的电子发射能力强,允许的电流密度高,电弧燃烧稳定。但钍元素具有一定的放射性,对其推广应用带来障碍。目前普遍采用的铈钨极(牌号WCe20)是在纯钨中加入质量分数为1.8%~2.2%氧化铈(杂质≤0.1%)而制成。铈钨极电子逸出功低,化学稳定性高,反复引弧的可靠性高,允许电流密度高(如采用直流正接氩弧焊时,允许电流密度比钍钨极提高5%~8%),烧损率低,并消除了放射性。
The tungsten electrode materials for argon arc welding are four kinds of pure tungsten, thorium tungsten, cerium tungsten, zirconium and tungsten. Pure tungsten has high melting point and high boiling point. It is not easy to melt and volatilize, but the electron emission ability is worse than thorium tungsten and cerium tungsten. A tungsten oxide (Tho) electrode with a mass fraction of 1.0%~2.0% is called tungsten thorium in pure tungsten. Its electron emission ability is strong, the current density is high, and the arc combustion is stable. But thorium has a certain radioactivity, which brings obstacles to its popularization and application. The widely used cerium tungsten electrode (grade WCe20) is made of pure tungsten with a mass fraction of 1.8%~2.2% cerium oxide (impurity less than 0.1%). Cerium tungsten electrode has low emission power, high chemical stability, high reliability and high current density, which allows current density to increase 5%~8% compared to thorium tungsten electrode, low burning loss and radioactivity.
2、溶剂的选择
2, the choice of solvent
在气焊、碳弧焊过程中,熔化的金属表面极易氧化而形成氧化膜,为保证焊接质量,必须用熔剂去除氧化膜及其他杂质。气焊、碳弧焊用的熔剂是各种钾、钠、锂、钙等元素的氯化物和氟化物粉末的混合物。用气焊、碳弧焊方法焊接、角接、搭接等接头时,焊件上残留的熔渣往往难以完全清除,在这种情况下,应根据不同的铝合金材料选用不同的熔剂。对于铝镁合金,不宜用含有钠的熔剂。
In the process of gas welding and carbon arc welding, the surface of molten metal is very easy to oxidize to form an oxide film. In order to guarantee the quality of the welding, the oxide film and other impurities must be removed with the flux. The flux used for gas welding and carbon arc welding is a mixture of chloride and fluoride powder of various elements such as potassium, sodium, lithium and calcium. With gas welding, carbon arc welding, welding, angle connection and lap joint, the residual slag on the weld is often difficult to completely remove. In this case, different flux should be selected according to the different aluminum alloy materials. For Al Mg alloys, sodium containing flux should not be used.

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